Serpentinite
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz
I-278 at Clove Road
Staten Island
NEW YORK
chromite
phlogopite
relict olivine
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz
Richmond Road
Staten Island
NEW YORK
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz
Richmond Road
Staten Island
NEW YORK
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz
Richmond Road
Staten Island
NEW YORK
Serpentinite is a rock composed of one or more serpentine minerals. Minerals in this group are formed by serpentinization, a hydration and metamorphic transformation of ultramafic rock from the Earth's mantle. The alteration is particularly important at the sea floor at lithospheric plate boundaries. It is the state rock of California. Serpentinization is a low-temperature metamorphic process involving heat and water in which low-silica mafic and ultramafic rocks are oxidized and hydrolyzed with water into serpentinite. Peridotite, including dunite, at and near the seafloor and in mountain belts is converted to serpentine, brucite, magnetite, and other minerals. In the process large amounts of water are absorbed into the rock increasing the volume and destroying the structure. The density changes from 3.3 to 2.7 grams per cubic centimeter with a concurrent volume increase of about 40%. The reaction is exothermic and large amounts of heat energy are produced in the process. Rock temperatures can be raised by about 260 degrees C, providing an energy source for formation of non-volcanic hydrothermal vents. Magnetite-forming chemical reactions produce hydrogen gas. Sulfates and carbonates are reduced and form methane and hydrogen sulfide. The hydrogen, methane, and hydrogen sulfide provide energy sources for deep sea chemotroph microorganisms.
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz
"Verde Antique"

Windsor County
VERMONT
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz
San Bernardino County
CALIFORNIA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz
San Bernardino County
CALIFORNIA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz
Lancaster County
PENNSYLVANIA
Photographed by Cheryl J. Moss, Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, NY
[Core]

West Street and W. 19th Street

Manhattan
NEW YORK
Photographed by Cheryl J. Moss, Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, NY
[Core]

West Street and W. 19th Street

Manhattan
NEW YORK
Photographed by Cheryl J. Moss, Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, NY

West Street and W. 19th Street

Manhattan
NEW YORK
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz



CALIFORNIA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Rhoscolyn
Anglesey

WALES
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Slickensided

Rhoscolyn
Anglesey

WALES
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


OREGON
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Brinton's Quarry
West Chester

PENNSYLVANIA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[Unpolished Cut Slab]

Lizard Point

Cornwall
UNITED KINGDOM
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[Magnesite Vein with Chromite and Magnetite in Serpentinite]

Wiry Magnesite Mine
Wiry
Gogołów-Jordanów Massif
Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)

POLAND
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[Magnesite Vein with Chromite and Magnetite in Serpentinite]

Wiry Magnesite Mine
Wiry
Gogołów-Jordanów Massif
Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)

POLAND
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[Magnesite Vein with Chromite and Magnetite in Serpentinite]

Wiry Magnesite Mine
Wiry
Gogołów-Jordanów Massif
Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)

POLAND
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[Magnesite Vein with Chromite and Magnetite in Serpentinite]

Wiry Magnesite Mine
Wiry
Gogołów-Jordanów Massif
Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)

POLAND
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[Magnesite Vein with Chromite and Magnetite in Serpentinite]

Wiry Magnesite Mine
Wiry
Gogołów-Jordanów Massif
Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)

POLAND
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


Panoche

San Benito County
CALIFORNIA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


Panoche

San Benito County
CALIFORNIA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


Panoche

San Benito County
CALIFORNIA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[With Chromite]


Nicholas Avenue and Richmond Terrace
Staten Island

Richmond County
NEW YORK
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[Serpentinized Peridotite]

Sierra Azul Block
Coast Range Ophiolite

Watsonville

Santa Cruz County
CALIFORNIA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


Verde Antique
[Sheared Serpentinite with Chromite and Talc and Minor Limonite]

Louise Chromite Belt

Troup County
GEORGIA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


Verde Antique
[Sheared Serpentinite with Chromite and Talc and Minor Limonite]

Louise Chromite Belt

Troup County
GEORGIA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


Verde Antique
[Sheared Serpentinite with Chromite and Talc and Minor Limonite]

Louise Chromite Belt

Troup County
GEORGIA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Massive Lizardite

Waziristan-Khost Ophiolite Belt
Gerdap Deposit
Emplacement: Early Carboniferous
Obduction: Late Cretaceous

Kama District

Nangarhar Province
AFGHANISTAN
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Massive Lizardite

Waziristan-Khost Ophiolite Belt
Gerdap Deposit
Emplacement: Early Carboniferous
Obduction: Late Cretaceous

Kama District

Nangarhar Province
AFGHANISTAN
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Massive Lizardite

Waziristan-Khost Ophiolite Belt
Gerdap Deposit
Emplacement: Early Carboniferous
Obduction: Late Cretaceous

Kama District

Nangarhar Province
AFGHANISTAN
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Massive Lizardite

Waziristan-Khost Ophiolite Belt
Gerdap Deposit
Emplacement: Early Carboniferous
Obduction: Late Cretaceous

Kama District

Nangarhar Province
AFGHANISTAN
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Massive Lizardite

Waziristan-Khost Ophiolite Belt
Gerdap Deposit
Emplacement: Early Carboniferous
Obduction: Late Cretaceous

Kama District

Nangarhar Province
AFGHANISTAN
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Cleaved and Slickensided

Lake Valhalla

Morris County
NEW JERSEY
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Cleaved and Slickensided

Lake Valhalla

Morris County
NEW JERSEY
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Cleaved and Slickensided

Lake Valhalla

Morris County
NEW JERSEY
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Cleaved and Slickensided

Lake Valhalla

Morris County
NEW JERSEY
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[With Hydromagnesite]

Spring Street
Staten Island

Richmond County
NEW YORK