Syenite
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


NORTH CAROLINA
Syenite is a coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock of the same general composition as granite but with the quartz either absent or present in relatively small amounts (<5%). The feldspar component of syenite is predominantly alkaline in character (usually orthoclase). Plagioclase feldspars may be present in small quantities, usually less than 10%. When present, ferromagnesian minerals are usually hornblende amphibole, rarely pyroxene or biotite. Biotite is rare, due to the fact in syenite magma most aluminum is used in producing feldspar. Syenites are usually peralkaline and peraluminous, with high proportions of alkali elements and aluminum. Syenites are formed from alkaline igneous activity, generally formed in thick continental crustal areas, or in Cordilleran subduction zones. To produce a syenite, it is necessary to melt a granitic or igneous protolith to a fairly low degree of partial melting. This is required because potassium is an incompatible element and tends to enter a melt first, whereas higher degrees of partial melting will liberate more calcium and sodium, which produce plagioclase, and hence a granite, adamellite or tonalite. At very low degrees of partial melting a silica undersaturated melt is produced, forming a nepheline syenite, where orthoclase is replaced by a feldspathoid such as leucite, nepheline or analcime.

Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


Larvik
NORWAY
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


Wichita Mountains
OKLAHOMA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[Nepheline Syenite]

Bearpaw Mountains

Hill County
MONTANA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


Caton County
NEW MEXICO
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


Tororo
MALAWI
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


Granite Mountain
ARKANSAS
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[Alkali Amphibole Syenite]

Palabora
SOUTH AFRICA
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[Nepheline Syenite]

Magnet Cove
ARKANSAS
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[With Accessory Titanite Crystals]

Plauen bei Dresden
GERMANY
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

McClure Mountain Alkalic Complex
McClure Mountain

Fremont County
COLORADO
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Shawa Complex
Buhera District

Manicaland
ZIMBABWE
Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

Shawa Complex
Buhera District

Manicaland
ZIMBABWE