1. Basalt is a dark-colored rock that is erupted onto the Earth's surface through shield-type volcanoes. Geologists have discovered basalt in northeastern New Jersey which has been dates as 160 million years old. According to the Principle of Uniformitarianism, which conclusion about the environment of northeastern New Jersey 160 million years ago makes the most sense?
a. Large rivers carried big boulders of basalt and deposited them there.
b. There were active shield-type volcanoes in this part of New Jersey.
c. Basalt can be formed in ways other than by volcanism.
d. The environment was tropical because most shield-type volcanoes around the world occur close to Earth's equator.
2. The basic building block of most minerals that comprise Earth's crust is
a. the sodium-chlorine cube
b. the aluminum-oxygen octahedron
c. the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
d. the iron-oxygen box
3. The age of the Earth is believed to be
a. 1.8 billion years
b. 10 billion years
c. 540 million years
d. 4.6 billion years
4. Compared to oceanic crust, continental crust is
a. thicker, older, and comprised of granite
b. thicker, older, and comprised of basalt
c. thinner, younger, and comprised of granite
d. thinner, older, and comprised of granite
5. The oldest known oceanic crust is
a. 10 million years old
b.. 10 billion years old
c. 100 million years old
d. 160 million years old
6. Which is an example of an equilibrium process?
a. Solidification of a cup of tap water after it is placed in a freezer.
b. Melting of an ice cube placed on the stove.
c. The evaporation of a rain puddle in the street.
d. All of the above are equilibrium processes.
7. The synchronous, worldwide appearance of large, multicellular organisms with exoskeletons, also known as the "Cambrian Explosion", occurred at which time in Earth's past?
a. 1.2 billion years ago
b. 4.5 billion years ago
c. 540 million years ago
d. 65 million years ago
8. Another name for a naturally-occurring, crystalline, inorganic solid with a specified composition is
9. The densest internal region of the Earth is the
a. outer core
d. inner core
10. The only internal region of the Earth which appears to be consistently molten (liquid) is
a. outer core
d. inner core
11. Which fraction of the Earth's surface is occupied by continent?
12. Which statement best explains the difference in surface height between the continents and the floor of the oceans?
a. Ocean floor rocks are less dense than continental rocks and therefore reside lower.
b. Ocean floor rocks are more dense than continental rocks and therefore reside lower.
c. Continental rocks are less dense than ocean floor rocks and therefore reside lower.
d. The weight of ocean water pushes the rocks of the ocean floor downward and therefore causes them to reside lower.
13. As one proceeds from Earth's surface downwards towards the Earth's center, which of the following observations are valid?
a. Temperature increases
b. Pressure increases
c. Density decreases
d. Time slows down
14. The Earth's shape can best be described as a(n)
d. oblate spheroid
15. The average density of the Earth as a whole (in grams per cubic centimeter) is
16. The age of the oldest known rocks on Earth is approximately
a. 3.8 billion years
b. 1.2 billion years
c. 66 million years
d. 160 million years
17. The oldest discovered, reliably identified human remains unearthed possess an age of
a. 5 million years
b. 1 million years
c. 1,000 years
d 160 million years
18. The average rate at which most steady-state geological processes (such as relative plate motions) in the solid Earth occur is closest to which of the following situations?
a. The rate at which a subway car travels between subway stations.
b. The rate at which a plow pushes snow.
c. The rate at which a bullet leaves the barrel of the gun from which it was fired.
d. The rate at which your fingernails grow.
19. Which two elements are the most abundant in the rocks of the Earth's crust (on the basis of mass)?
a. silicon and aluminum
b. aluminum and oxygen
c. silicon and oxygen
d. iron and silicon
20. Which of the following geologic phenomena are directly attributable to the loss of Earth's internal heat?
d. All of the above are attributable to heat loss