Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz


Flambeau Mine

Gossan is intensely oxidized, weathered or decomposed rock, usually the upper and exposed part of an ore deposit or mineral vein. In the classic gossan or iron cap all that remains is iron oxides and quartz often in the form of boxworks, quartz lined cavities retaining the shape of the dissolved ore minerals. In other cases quartz and iron oxides, limonite, goethite, and jarosite, exist as pseudomorphs replacing the pyrite and primary ore minerals. Frequently gossan appears as a red stain against the background rock and soil due to the abundance of oxidized iron and the gossan may be a topographic positive area due to the abundance of erosion resistant quartz and iron oxides.

Photographed by Michael P. Klimetz

[Pyrrhotite-Limonite-Apatite-Pyroxene Gossan]

Philips Mine
Anthony's Nose

Putnam County