Answer the following questions directly on this paper. Answers to multiple choice questions should be placed on the line adjacent to the question number. Responses to short-answer type questions or solutions to problems should appear in the spaces provided. Written responses must be in full, grammatically correct sentences and calculated answers must be accompanied by all work. Read each question carefully and thoroughly.
_____ 2. The first worldwide, synchronous appearance of multi-cellular life forms with exoskeletons on Earth is thought to have occurred approximately
a. 540 million years ago. b. 4.5 billion years ago.
c. 1 million years ago. d. last year.
_____ 1. The approximate age of the Earth is most nearly
a. 600 million years b. 4.5 billion years c. 10 billion years d. 1,000 years
_____ 3. The oldest established evidence of human presence on the Earth dates from
a. 1,000 years ago. b. 1 million years ago.
c. 1 billion years ago. d. 5 million years ago.
_____ 4. The average thickness of continental crust is
a. 10 km b. 35 km c. 70 km d. 5 km
_____ 5. Which of the following statements about oceanic crust is correct?
a. It is older, denser and thinner than continental crust.
b. It is older, denser and thicker than continental crust.
c. It is younger, denser and thinner than continental crust.
d. It is older, not as dense and thicker than continental crust.
_____ 6. The oldest known oceanic crust is
a. 150 million years b. 1 million years c. 1,000 years d. 10 billion years
_____ 7. The layers of the solid Earth, from the center outwards, are
a. crust-mantle-outer core-inner core
b. outer core-inner core-mantle-crust
c. inner core-mantle-outer core-crust
d. inner core-outer core-mantle-crust
_____ 8. As one travels from the Earth's surface downward towards Earth's center, which of the following observations would be expected?
a. Temperature increases.
b. Pressure increases.
c. Density increases
d. All of the above.
_____ 9. The majority of the minerals which make-up the rocks of the Earth's crust are comprised of
a. aluminum and iron b. aluminum and silicon
c. silicon and sodium d. silicon and oxygen
_____ 10. The average rate at which geological processes in the solid Earth occur is closest to which of the following situations?
a. The rate at which you walk through the school halls between classes.
b. The rate at which Mr. K speaks.
c. The rate at which the post office delivers parcels.
d. The rate at which your fingernails grow.
I. Briefly summarize the role and contributions of the geologist to modern society. Cite specific examples.
II. List at least ten common materials that have been derived from sources discovered by geologists. Be specific.